There is low investment in sewerage and waste water management. Widespread lack of safe disposal of human waste is a serious threat to health in Kenya. In 2015, a report by UN’s Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation, said human right to sanitation is not simply about access to a toilet; rather, it is defined as a system for the collection, transport, treatment and disposal or reuse of human excreta and associated hygiene.
Kenya was one of the first States to explicitly recognise the human rights to water and sanitation in national legislation. In article 43 of the Constitution of 2010, Kenya recognises those rights by stating that every person has the rights to reasonable standards of sanitation and to clean and safe water in adequate quantities.
The Special Rapporteur said to realise the human right to sanitation, the Government must ensure that toilets are hygienic to use and to maintain, and that waste matter is safely contained, transported, treated and disposed of or recycled.
To safeguard the health benefits of access to sanitation and to protect water resources, standards and targets for the full cycle of sanitation provision must be set, from the collection of wastes to their transport, treatment and disposal or reuse.